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Twilled Woolen Fabric

by Ainun Najwa

Twill woolen fabric is a textile weave pattern that has diagonal parallel ribs. You have to pass the weft woolen thread over one or more warp thread, then pass under two or more warp threads. The full design comes out with an offset between rows that create a diagonal pattern.

You can easily recognize twill weaves from blue jeans. The fabric has a smooth surface and slightly high mechanical properties. Gabardine is used by high-quality tailors to make the pockets of bespoke suits. Wool comes from sheared sheep. It is warm, strong, dry and cannot wrinkle easily. At times, wool is coarse but high quality ones are really soft. Woven woolen fabric are subjected to finishing techniques that feels like the fibre is arranged in directions.

twill fabric

Twill woolen fabrics are produced using three or four harness-frames that keeps yarns in place. The harnesses-frames are also used to lift up every third or fourth warp yarn to get a repeated pattern. The weaver can lift up sets of two harnesses at the same time which will create a more balanced twill weave. It thickens the fabric making it stronger and can hide soils.

The fabric has a better drape and is wrinkle-resistant. Unlike plain weaves, twill-woven fabrics usually have a front and back side. The front side of a twill is called the technical face meanwhile the back is called the technical back. Twills are durable and attractive. The fabric is air and water-resistant and more durable. Woolen twill fabrics are softer than plain-weave textiles because of the fewer interlacing that twills got that allows yarns to move more freely. Twills come in even-sided (foulard, surah) and warp-faced (gabardine, cavalry twill).

They can be used to make heavy weight dresses like jeans, jackets and outerwear for construction and military. Cavalry twill another smooth twilled woolen fabric that has distinct diagonal lines. Gabardine is used to make professional suits and also dress slacks. It has very distinct diagonal weaves. This pattern is created by adding more warp thread than filling threads. With varied colors for warp and filling, the line patterns can be more emphasized.

It is possible to change the appearance and structure of twill weaves. Alternating two colors of warp and filling threads can be made give out a classic twill fabric that gives a distinct pattern which looks like a star that has four points. This pattern is called a Houndstooth. There are other derivatives of twill-woven decorative fabrics that are not common to see. Broken, undulating and pointed twills are those decorative twills that that have no specific names. They are very expensive because they are not common and usually used for expensive home decorations or haute couture.

Twilled woolen fabrics have an interesting texture and design. Twill designs that are printed on cloth are less common than printed plain weaves. The uneven surface of twill-woven fabrics makes soil and stain less noticeable. That is why twills are usually used for outdoor and work clothing that are durable.

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